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What is Urinary / Kidney Stone?

A kidney stone is a hard, crystalline mineral deposit formed within the kidney or urinary tract.
‘Nephrolithiasis’ is the medical term used for kidney stones. Kidney stones are formed when
there is a decrease in urine volume and/or an excess of stone-forming substance in the urine.

Symptoms of Urinary Stone

  • Pain in the back, belly, or side
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Pain or burning during urination
  • Increased frequency of urination
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Bladder neck incision
  • Pain and burning during urination
  • Fever, chills, loss of appetite
  • Urinary tract infection

What are the Causes?

Dehydration is a major risk factor for kidney stone formation. Other cause of kidney (renal)
stone formation includes

  • Certain medical conditions
  • Chronic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure (hypertension)
  • People with inflammatory bowel disease
  • hyperparathyroidism
  • Kidney diseases such as renal tubular acidosis
  • Diet and hereditary factors are also related to stone formation. In particular, inadequate fluid intake predisposes to dehydration, which is a major risk factor for stone formation.
  • Hypercalciuria i.e. high calcium in the urine is another inherited disorder which may
    cause stones. In this condition, too much calcium is absorbed from food and excreted
    into the urine, where it may form calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate kidney stones.


  • Using sound waves to break up stones. For certain kidney stones, dependent on size and
    location, the doctor may advise a procedure called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy
  • Surgery to remove very large stones in the kidney. A procedure called percutaneous
    nephrolithotomy involves surgically removing a kidney stone using small telescopes and
    instruments inserted through a small slit in your back.
  • Using a scope to remove stones. To remove a smaller stone in your ureter or kidney, your
    the doctor may pass a thin lighted tube (ureteroscope) equip with a camera through the
    urethra and bladder to the ureter.

At Adiva Hospitals, Department of Urology relies on providing complete comfort and care according to the patient’s need and requirement. With the state-of-the-art facilities available, the patient can avail the best treatment.